Now that you have a grip on investment basics and have decided to invest, how do you build the right portfolio? Let’s consider an all equity investment portfolio where you put 100% of your portfolio in stocks. Is this a good idea? Not exactly. Why? Because diversification allows you to avoid large losses and build long-term wealth. Consider starting with a portfolio that is 80% stocks (equities) and 20% bonds. One of the easiest ways to start your portfolio is to buy 80% of your portfolio in the Total Stock Market Index ETF (VTI) and 20% Total Bond Market Index (BND). Both ETFs are from Vanguard and offer low expense fees and ease of purchasing through any brokerage account.
The most recent annual report – While reading the annual report, you'll want to pay special attention to the letter from the Chairman, CEO, and sometimes CFO or other high-ranking officers to see how they view the business. Not all annual reports are created equally. Generally, the best in the business is considered to be the one written by Warren Buffett at Berkshire Hathaway, which you can download from free on the holding company's corporate site.

This was a quick reading book and informative to help aid in stock selection for the do-it-yourselfer investor or person wanting to learn about investing. It explains how to compare companies. It does not give any insight into when to buy or sell stocks. There are other books more informative. But, this is an easy read and handy book for a person wanting to learn more about investing.

During your wealth accumulation stage, consider over-weighing stocks that pay low or no dividends. Lower yielding stocks tend to be safer, have greater growth potential, eventually leading to bigger dividends later, and save you on taxes (by allowing you to defer tax on unrealized capital gains rather than paying tax on dividend, a form of forced distribution).[38]

Don’t be surprised if the price you pay — or receive, if you’re selling — is not the exact price you were quoted just seconds before. Bid and ask prices fluctuate constantly throughout the day. That’s why a market order is best used when buying stocks that don’t experience wide price swings — large, steady blue-chip stocks as opposed to smaller, more volatile companies.
Knowing how to secure your financial well-being is one of the most important things you’ll ever need in life. You don’t have to be a genius to do it. You just need to know a few basics, form a plan, and be ready to stick to it. There is no guarantee that you’ll make money from investments you make. But if you get the facts about saving and investing and follow through with an intelligent plan, you should be able to gain financial security over the years and enjoy the benefits of managing your money. For more information, SEC’s publication Saving and Investing: A Roadmap To Your Financial Security Through Saving and Investing.
When people talk about investing in stocks, they usually mean investing in common stock, which is another way to describe business ownership, or business equity. When you own equity in a business, you are entitled to a share of the profit or losses generated by that company's operating activity. On an aggregate basis, equities have historically been the most rewarding asset class for investors seeking to build wealth over time without using large amounts of leverage.
It's crucial to educate yourself before you wade into any type of investment or investment strategy. This beginner's guide to online stock trading will give you a starting point and walk you through several processes: choosing a discount broker, the 12 types of stock trades you can make, how to select individual stocks, uncovering hidden fees, expenses, and commissions, and much more. 
Learn about mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs). Mutual funds and ETFs are similar investment vehicles in that each is a collection of many stocks and/or bonds (hundreds or thousands in some cases). Holding an individual security is a concentrated way of investing – the potential for gain or loss is tied to a single company – whereas holding a fund is a way to spread the risk across many companies, sectors or regions. Doing so can dampen the upside potential but also serves to protect against the downside risk.
One of the problems with investing in individual stocks, however, is that it’s incredibly difficult to know which stocks will perform better than others. Unless you’re Warren Buffet or a similar Wall Street wizard (and, in fact, even they get it wrong much of the time), chances are good that you might as well just throw a dart at the financial section of the newspaper and buy whatever the dart lands on.
When it comes to investing in stocks, you can either buy and sell shares yourself (self-directed investing) or you can use an advisor and have your money managed for you (managed investing). Way back when (early 1900s), you had to use a licensed professional known as a stock broker to place stock trades on your behalf. Thanks to the Internet, investors around the globe now invest for themselves using an online brokerage account. Today, "stock broker" is just another name for an online brokerage account.

In terms of the beginning investor, the mutual fund fees are actually an advantage relative to the commissions on stocks. The reason for this is that the fees are the same regardless of the amount you invest. So, as long as you have the minimum requirement to open an account, you can invest as little as $50 or $100 per month in a mutual fund. The term for this is called dollar cost averaging (DCA), and it can be a great way to start investing.

I like things that go "boom." Sonic or otherwise, that means I tend to gravitate towards defense and aerospace stocks. But to tell the truth, over the course of a dozen years writing for The Motley Fool, I have covered -- and continue to cover -- everything from retailers to consumer goods stocks, and from tech to banks to insurers as well. Follow me on Twitter or Facebook for the most important developments in defense & aerospace news, and other great stories besides.


Stock investing is filled with intricate strategies and approaches, yet some of the most successful investors have done little more than stick with the basics. That generally means using funds for the bulk of your portfolio — Warren Buffett has famously said a low-cost S&P 500 index fund is the best investment most Americans can make — and choosing individual stocks only if you believe in the company’s potential for long-term growth.

If you already have a firm handle on your investment strategy and want to maximize your profits, OptionsHouse is excellent. What it lacks in some of the investor education features that competitors like TD Ameritrade can claim, it makes up with its low-cost, streamlined trading platform. Like Ally Invest, it’s been a longtime leader in rock-bottom pricing, with a $4.95 trade commission, and, unlike many brokerages catering to active investors, no account minimums or inactivity fees. Fees for a single-leg options contract are $5.45 all-in. Plus, if you have $5,000 to invest, you’ll receive $1,000 worth of commission-free trades.

At $4.95 a trade, with no inactivity charge, and only a $50 full outgoing transfer fee, Ally Invest’s fee structure is about as low as you'll find. Even though a rash of brokers dropped their commissions in 2017 to be competitive with Ally Invest’s $4.95 flat rate, Ally keeps its edge with a zero account minimum and enticing discount for active investors — equity trades drop to $3.95 for users with 30+ trades each quarter or a balance of $100,000.
If you want to learn more about how to invest in a stock, check out the directory of Investing for Beginners articles I've written, sorted by topic or head over to my blog for more esoteric and advanced topics that aren't particularly appropriate for beginners. Whatever happens, remember that stocks are just one of many types of assets that you can use to build wealth and become financially independent. 
Even huge companies like Apple don’t make announcements every day or even on a regular basis, though. Earnings reports only hit once a quarter. Therefore, a lot of what makes stocks move on a day-to-day basis might have to do with the direction of the market as a whole. If stocks are going up that day, many times companies will benefit from the increased appetite for stocks in general.
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Dividend reinvestment programs are often coupled with cash investment options that resemble direct stock purchase plans so you can regularly have money withdrawn from your checking or savings account, or send in one-time payments whenever you feel like, perhaps as little as $25, buying more shares of stock in a business as you might purchase something from a mail-order catalog.
The decision between a high-risk, high-return investment strategy and a low-risk, low-return strategy should depend, in part, on your investing time frame. Conventional wisdom states that the farther you are from retirement, the more risk you can afford to take. That means a stock-heavy portfolio in your 20s, when you can afford to chase returns. Then, even if your portfolio takes a hit during a recession when you’re in your 30s, you’ll have time to make up your losses before you retire. By the same logic, the closer you are to retirement, the more you likely want to focus on preserving your gains and avoiding too much risk.
How to get going with just $5: If you really want to start small you can use an app like Stash or Acorns. Both allow you to begin investing with just $5. Stash offers you a choice of several funds to invest in. You basically end up owning part of a stock -- similar to sharing your apartment with roommates. Acorns allows you to deposit "spare change" from say, your coffee purchase. When you get to $5, the app invests that money for you into a diversified portfolio (basically, a mix of stocks and bonds).
There are a few other risks that come with bonds. Because their rates are fixed, they fail to take inflation into account. Additionally, if interest rates increase, existing bonds’ prices will fall. Although you technically won’t lose value if you buy the bond before the drop, having money in a bond with a lower rate means your missing out on better fixed-income investments.

Value investors seek to buy stocks that they believe are underpriced by the market. These companies may be out of favor because of the economic cycle, or because they have suffered setbacks such as disappointing earnings or unexpected competition. Whatever the reason, value investors are looking for stocks whose low prices are temporary. The idea is that current perceptions about the stock do not reflect its potential and that eventually the market will recognize the company’s true value.
If you’re considering getting started investing in collectibles, make sure you do a lot of homework and get educated first. This is also an area where there are a lot of investing scams. It’s also important to remember that collectible investment gains are taxed at a much higher rate that other investments – which is your ordinary income tax rate (not the special 20% for capital gains).

Whether you save for retirement with a 401(k) or similar employer-sponsored plan, in a traditional or Roth IRA, or as an individual investor with a brokerage account, you choose what to invest in. It’s important to understand each instrument and how much risk it carries. Also, remember that you don’t need to have saved thousands to begin investing — even $500 can get you started.
Mutual funds. A mutual fund is a basket that contains a bunch of different investments — often mostly stocks — that all have something in common, be it companies that together make up a market index (see the box for more about the joys of index funds), a particular asset class (bonds, international stocks) or a specific sector (companies in the energy industry, technology stocks). There are even mutual funds that invest solely in companies that adhere to certain ethical or environmental principles (aka socially responsible funds).
Beyond that, we evaluated each firm on the services that matter most to different types of investors. For example, for active traders, we note providers offering volume discounts on trade commissions and robust mobile trading platforms. For people venturing into investing for the first time, we call out brokers that provide educational support (such as stock-picking tutorials) and on-call chat or phone support.
The good thing about stocks is that they trade on a public exchange, which means it's easy to get up-to-the-minute information on what various companies' shares are selling for. But how do you actually acquire those shares? Well, you need a broker -- either an actual person or an online brokerage firm. These days, many investors opt for the latter, but keep in mind that some accounts have a minimum funding balance you'll need to meet. For example, you might need $1,000 to open an account and start trading.
Because ETFs are traded like a stock, brokers often charge a commission to buy or sell them. But many brokers, including the ones on this list of the best ETF brokers, have a selection of commission-free ETFs. If you plan to regularly invest in an ETF — as many investors do, by making automatic investments each month or week — you should choose a commission-free ETF so you aren’t paying a commission each time. (Here’s some background about commissions and other investment fees.)
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