Shares of ETFs are bought and sold in the market at a market price, which may differ from NAV. Investors selling ETF shares in the market may receive less than NAV. Investors buying and selling ETF shares at market price may pay brokerage commissions, which will reduce returns. Market returns are based upon the closing price, which is generally at 4:00 p.m. ET and do not represent the returns you would receive if you traded shares at other times. Investors may acquire ETF shares and tender them for redemption in Creation Unit Aggregations only. Individual ETF shares are not redeemable.
Choose where to open your account. There are different options available: you can go to a brokerage firm (sometimes also called a wirehouse or custodian) such as Fidelity, Charles Schwab or TD Ameritrade. You can open an account on the website of one of these institutions, or visit a local branch and choose to direct the investments on your own or pay to work with a staff advisor. You can also go directly to a fund company such as Vanguard, Fidelity, or T. Rowe Price and let them be your broker. They will offer you their own funds, of course, but many fund companies (such as the three just named) offer platforms on which you can buy the funds of other companies, too. See below for additional options in finding an advisor.
An important tip for investing for beginners with little money is to always keep an eye on costs! There can be costs associated when you buy or sell as well as annual costs from mutual funds or ETFs (Electronic Traded Funds). You will want to look at the expense ratio charged, which are the annual fees funds’ and ETFs charge. The lower the better! Also, only purchase mutual funds that do not have a purchase fee (load fee) when you buy a fund. Lastly, remember that some of the brokerage companies offer their own ETFs at very low or at transaction free costs. Check out Betterment or Future Advisor. The World's Worst Stock Investment Advice
These profits may be distributed as dividends, which are quarterly payments made to the shareholders, they may be distributed in the form of share repurchases, which help drive up the price of the stock, making the shareholders money, or they may be set aside in order to be used at a later date to grow the company and increase the value of the shareholders’ stock.
Some companies offer direct stock purchase plans (DSPPs) that allow you to purchase their stock without a broker. If you are planning on buying and holding or dollar cost averaging, this may be your best option. Search online or call or write the company whose stock you wish to buy to inquire whether they offer such a plan.  Pay attention to the fee schedule and select the plans that charge no or minimal fees.
The solution to both is investing in stock index funds and ETFs. While mutual funds might require a $1,000 minimum or more, index fund minimums tend to be lower (and ETFs are purchased for a share price that could be lower still). Two brokers, Fidelity and Charles Schwab, offer index funds with no minimum at all. Index funds also cure the diversification issue because they hold many different stocks within a single fund.
Stock investing is filled with intricate strategies and approaches, yet some of the most successful investors have done little more than stick with the basics. That generally means using funds for the bulk of your portfolio — Warren Buffett has famously said a low-cost S&P 500 index fund is the best investment most Americans can make — and choosing individual stocks only if you believe in the company’s potential for long-term growth.
When you open your investment account, consider setting up regular automatic deposits. Many employers offer automatic transfers from your paycheck to your investment account. Check with your employer to see if it is offered at your company. It is certainly worth checking it out. The reason it is effective is that it teaches you to automatically save. You don’t have to even think about it, and you’ll be consistently investing – that’s a stock investing 101 key to success. Alternatively, you can set up automatic withdrawals from your checking account after each paycheck. This performs the same function in case it is not offered by your employer.
Once you've learned the basics, and you've come up with your game plan, the next step is to open a brokerage account and put your plan into action. Be sure to shop around, as different brokerages charge different fees and offer different features. As a new investor, you'll want a brokerage which offers access to investment research and educational features, in order to help with stock selection and to answer any questions you might have along the way.
To the inexperienced investor, investing may seem simple enough - all you need to do is go to a brokerage firm and open up an account, right? What you may not know, however, is that all financial institutions have minimum deposit requirements. In other words, they won't accept your account application unless you deposit a certain amount of money. With a sum as small as $1,000, some firms won't allow you to open an account.